Cancer is a devastating illness that ranks among the leading causes of death globally. In India, it results in approximately 1.2 million new cases annually, with 800,000 succumbing to this deadly disease due to a lack of awareness and the high cost of treatment. However, timely diagnosis and treatment can increase the chances of recovery.
India offers a range of treatment options for cancer, with high success rates in all major cities, and the added advantage of affordability. The three main methods used for treating various types of cancer are Surgery, Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy. India offers a variety of treatment methods to fight cancer, including:
One of the most effective cancer treatment options in India is Surgery, which is often the primary approach taken in treating cancer. During this medical procedure, surgeons use small knives called scalpels to remove cancerous tumors and the surrounding healthy tissues, in order to prevent the spread of cancer cells.
The extent and success of surgical treatment varies depending on various factors, including the type of cancer, size, stage, distribution, and location.
In India, highly skilled and acclaimed surgeons are capable of performing even the most complex surgeries. The country's cancer hospitals are equipped with state-of-the-art technology and equipment, allowing for the latest surgical procedures such as minimally invasive surgery and robotic surgery to be performed at an affordable cost.
Following are the reasons why surgery is performed as a cancer treatment:
- to remove the cancerous tumor
- To diagnose and stage cancer
- To prevent or lower the risk of developing cancer
- To find out the location of the cancer
- To find out if the cancer have spread or is hampering the functions of the other organs in the body
- To To relief the symptoms and and side effects caused by the cancer
- To support other treatment options
- Can be used as conserving surgery i.e conserving breasts in case of breast cancer
- If possible surgically remove recurrent cancer
- To reconstruct the organ removed due to cancer either using the tissue from the patient's own body or using external material such as silicon
The type of surgery used for cancer treatment varies based on factors such as the purpose of the surgery, the specific body part requiring surgery, the amount of tissue to be removed, and, in some cases, patient preference. There are two major types of surgeries:
Open Surgery - In this procedure, the surgeon makes a large incision to remove the tumor and any adjacent tissues and lymph nodes.
Minimally Invasive Surgery - Here, the surgeon makes a few small incisions through which a long, thin tube equipped with a tiny camera is inserted. This allows the surgeon to view and remove the tumor and surrounding healthy tissues.
There are several other types of surgeries available for cancer treatment, including:
Cryosurgery – This surgery technique uses liquid nitrogen, which is extremely cool, to kill cancer cells by placing it on the skin or inserting it into the body via an instrument.
Laser Surgery – The beams of light energy are used to shrink or destroy the very small cancer tumors from sites that are difficult to reach.
Electrosurgery – Electric current is used to kill cancer cells in this procedure.
Microscopically Controlled Surgery – This surgical procedure is useful in case cancer affects delicate parts of the body such as the eye. Layers of the skin is removed and examined under the microscope until cancer cells cannot be detected.
Surgery is a highly successful option for cancer treatment in India, but some of the common side-effects caused by surgery includes: pain, infection, bleeding, damage to nearby tissues and reactions to the anesthesia.
Chemotherapy is an aggressive form of chemical drug therapy in which anticancer drugs are given to stop the cancer cells from growing rapidly.
It basically interferes with the cancer cell’s ability to divide and reproduce.
Chemotherapy is considered as Systematic treatment and can work throughout the whole body unlike Surgery and Radiation Therapy which focuses on certain areas.
Thus, it can kill cancer cells which have spread to other parts of the body i.e. which have metastasized.
Chemotherapy is a successful option for cancer treatment in India. Here, highly skilled medical oncologists have tremendous knowledge about this treatment and have effectively combined it with other therapies to make it more effective. Also, the latest advancements and new drugs are easily available in India.
The chemotherapy cost in India is very less as compared to other countries as patients can save at least 50% of the cost in hospitals over here.
Following are some of the methods of giving chemotherapy:
Orally – Drugs are given either in capsules or liquid form which patients can take orally.
Intravenous Chemotherapy - The drugs can be injected directly into the vein with a needle.
Topically - It can be applied on the skin as a cream.
Direct Placement – This method is used to treat brain tumor. Here, chemotherapy can be given via lumbar puncture or device that is placed under the scalp.
Chemotherapy is typically administered in cycles, ranging from a single-day treatment to up to two weeks, depending on the type and stage of cancer. Doctors may recommend this treatment option with the goal of permanently curing the cancer. If a cure is not possible, chemotherapy may be used to prevent the cancer from spreading and growing further. Additionally, it may be used as palliative care to alleviate the symptoms associated with cancer.
While chemotherapy can be an effective treatment option, it is invasive and can have adverse effects on both cancerous and healthy cells. As with any medical treatment, there are potential risks and side effects, which can be explored further by clicking here.
III. Radiation Therapy
Radiation Therapy is a cancer treatment that involves using high doses of energy beams, such as X-rays, Gamma rays, protons, or electron beams, to eliminate cancer cells and disrupt their ability to grow and divide. Radiation works by creating small breaks in the DNA of cells, which slows down the growth of cancer cells by damaging their DNA.
If you're curious about what India has to offer in terms of Radiation Therapy, rest assured that cancer hospitals in India have access to the latest, state-of-the-art technologies that are on par with those in other developed countries. India is among the few countries that offer Proton Therapy, the most recent development in Radiation Therapy. Additionally, the cost of Radiation Therapy is significantly lower in India compared to other countries.
There are two methods of delivering Radiation Therapy:
1. External Beam Radiation Therapy - This procedure involves using a machine that directs radio waves at the tumor from outside the body. The energy beams are produced by a linear accelerator and are focused on destroying the cancer cells. This method does not harm surrounding healthy tissues and may be used to alleviate the symptoms of advanced cancer stages.
2. Internal Radiation Therapy - It is also known as Brachytherapy. A radioactive substance such as seeds, pellets, ribbons, wires, needles, tubes or capsules are implanted inside the body near the cancerous tumor to shrink and kill the cancer cells.
Radiation Therapy is given in cycles for a period of one to eight weeks depending on the type and stage of cancer. It is usually given once a day, five times a week and it takes 15-30 minutes each time.
Radiation Therapy can be used as:
Although, radiation therapy is a very effective treatment option, but it has its own side effects and risks associated with it. To learn about all the risks and side-effects assosiated with radiation therapy,
In India, Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that utilizes the body's natural defenses to prevent, control, and eliminate cancer. Also known as Biological Therapy, it works by boosting the immune system to fight cancer cells using natural or laboratory-made immune system proteins to enhance immune system function.
Immunotherapy can be expensive, but in India, it is comparatively more cost-effective than in other countries. Due to advancements in research, we no longer have to import drugs from other countries, as we are developing them in our state-of-the-art laboratories, which have reduced costs.
Immunotherapy can be administered in various ways, including:
Oral – The drugs can be given either in the form of pills or capsules that patient can swallow.
Intravenous (IV) – It can be injected directly into a vein through injection.
Topical – Immunotherapy can be given in the form of a cream that can be rub onto the skin. It is used for early stage of skin cancer.
Intravesical – A liquid drug is put directly into the bladder in this treatment approach.
The types of immunotherapy are:
This therapy is given in cycles which are once in three weeks. This treatment is given till the cancer is cured, so it can go on from a few months to maximum of two years.
Immunotherapy is not widely used as surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy but it has its own benefits and risks.
V. Bone Marrow Transplant
Bone Marrow Transplantation is a medical procedure that involves replacing the damaged or destroyed bone marrow in patients with blood cancer/disorders with healthy bone marrow. This is also known as Stem Cell Transplantation. The procedure involves extracting healthy stem cells, filtering them, and reintroducing them into the patient's bone marrow or the donor's bone marrow where they can produce new blood cells.
India is an excellent destination for bone marrow transplantation due to internationally acclaimed BMT centres, highly trained and experienced doctors, and state-of-the-art technology and infrastructure that are at par with developed countries. The cost of the treatment is also more affordable in India compared to other countries.
There are two major types of Bone Marrow Transplant: Autologous bone marrow transplant, where the patient's own healthy stem cells are extracted before they are treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy, and allogeneic bone marrow transplant, where stem cells are taken from a donor with genes that match the patient's HLA type.
Bone marrow plays a crucial role in producing white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets to prevent infection, anaemia, and bleeding disorders. Bone Marrow Transplantation is a specific treatment performed in cases of blood cancer/disorders to restore the bone marrow's healthy function.
VI. Hormone Therapy
Hormone Therapy is a type of cancer treatment that blocks, adds, or removes hormones that are responsible for aiding the growth of cancer cells. This therapy is commonly used to treat prostate and breast cancer in India.
Prostate and breast cancers are prevalent in India, and Hormone Therapy is a crucial treatment option for patients. The country has highly skilled doctors who possess extensive knowledge about this therapy and have successfully treated numerous patients. Furthermore, ongoing research and development are being conducted to introduce new drugs and improve the existing ones.
Hormone Therapy helps reduce the risk of cancer returning and can prevent or relieve the symptoms caused by cancer. This therapy alters hormone levels in the body by removing the hormone-producing organ or gland, treating the gland or organ with radiation to destroy the hormone-producing cells, or through hormonal drug therapy that interferes or suppresses hormone production.
Hormone Therapy can be administered in the form of pills, shots, or surgery to remove the organs that produce hormones. However, since the therapy blocks the body's ability to produce hormones or interferes with their behavior, it can lead to unwanted side effects. Moreover, some of these side effects may differ based on gender.
VII. Targeted Therapy
Targeted Therapy is a cancer treatment that focuses on using drugs that specifically target the genes, proteins, or tissues responsible for the growth and survival of cancer cells.
This treatment approach differs from chemotherapy, which attacks fast-growing cells in the body, whether they are cancerous or not.
Targeted Therapy is a valuable option for cancer patients and has proven to be effective in treating various types of cancer. In India, this advanced cancer treatment is available at an affordable cost, making it accessible to more people. Ongoing research is being conducted to explore the effectiveness of combining targeted therapy with other treatments, such as chemotherapy.
There are two main types of Targeted Therapy:
Monoclonal Antibodies - These antibodies attach themselves to specific targets on the surface of cancer cells, making them more vulnerable to radiation or chemotherapy.
Small Molecule Drugs - These drugs are small enough to penetrate the cancer cells and destroy them from within.
This treatment option is used to:
Cost of Cancer Treatment in India
In addition to finding the best cancer hospital in India, the cost of cancer treatment is also a commonly asked question. The cost can vary significantly depending on the type of cancer and its stage/grade. We have provided a detailed breakdown of the cost of cancer treatment in India for different types of treatments for your reference.
You may be interested to know that targeted therapy is expected to be less toxic than chemotherapy drugs because cancer cells are more dependent on targeted genes and proteins than normal cells. However, like any other cancer treatment, targeted therapy also has some potential side effects, such as liver problems and diarrhea.
Brain tumor cancer
If you have questions like:
Which hospital is the best option for me?
Where can I find affordable yet quality treatment?
Is cancer curable?
What is the success rate for cancer treatment?
You can find answers to all your queries by consulting with the top oncologists in India who specialize in cancer treatment.
Organ Specific Treatments
Cancer can occur in all the organs. The treatment plan will differ for different organs based on their site and the intensity of treatment they require.
We have further provided the organ specific treatment options for some of the most common types of cancer affecting people all over the world:
1. Blood Cancer treatment in India
Blood Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Fortis Hospital
2. Tata Memorial Hospital
Tata Memorial Hospital
3. Medanta - The Medicity
Medanta - The Medicity
4. S.L.Raheja Fortis Hospital
S.L.Raheja Fortis Hospital
5. Apollo Hospital
Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi
Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre, New Delhi
Fortis Hospital, Mulund, Mumbai
Apollo Hospitals, Chennai
Christian Medical College, Vellore
HCG Cancer Centre, Bangalore
Max Super Specialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi
Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital and Medical Research Institute, Mumbai
Narayana Health City, Bangalore
Blood cancer occurs when abnormal cells interfere with the normal functioning of blood cells and usually begins in the bone marrow, which is responsible for producing blood cells.
According to the latest statistics available from Globocan, in India, there were approximately 94,000 new cases of blood cancer in 2020, and around 72,000 deaths occurred due to the disease. Leukaemia, which is a type of blood cancer, is ranked as the 9th most common cancer affecting Indians.
Fortunately, there are several hospitals in India that specialize in the treatment of blood cancer. Some of the top hospitals for blood cancer treatment in India include Tata Memorial Hospital, Apollo Hospitals, Fortis Healthcare, Max Healthcare, and AIIMS (All India Institute of Medical Sciences), among others. These hospitals offer various treatments like chemotherapy, stem cell transplant, targeted therapy, and immunotherapy, among others.
Leukaemia, Lymphoma and Myeloma are three main types of blood cancer.
In Leukaemia, the abnormal white blood cells are produced in high numbers which starts hampering the bone marrow’s ability to produce red blood cells and platelets.
In Lymphoma, the blood cancer affects the lymphatic system. The lymphoma cells grow abnormally in the lymph nodes and other tissues which impair the immune system.
Myeloma, this type of cancer affects the plasma cells, which are white blood cells that are responsible for producing antibodies in our body to fight against diseases. As a result, it weakens the immune system.
Further, the blood cancer has four stages and the treatment depends on the stages, the type of cancer, patient’s age, and the rate at which the cancer is progressing, the site of cancer and whether it has spread. The options available for blood cancer treatment in India are:
Bone Marrow Transplantation – This treatment is used to replace the damaged cells with healthy bone marrow stem cells. It is used to cure many chronic diseases like blood cancer.
Chemotherapy – This procedure uses anticancer drugs to stop cancer cells from growing in the body and thismay be used in combination with radiation therapy.
Radiation Therapy –It is used to destroy cancer cells and give relief from pain and discomfort. This treatment can also be given before stem cell transplant.
2. Prostate Cancer treatment in India
Prostate Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Fortis Hospital
2. Kokilaben hospital
3. Apollo Hospital
Apollo Specialty Cancer Hospital
4. Institute for prostate cancer
Institute for prostate cancer
5. Blue Ribbon Prostate Clinic
Blue Ribbon Prostate Clinic
Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai
All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Delhi
Fortis Hospital, Mumbai
Apollo Hospitals, Chennai
Max Super Speciality Hospital, Delhi
Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai
Medanta - The Medicity, Gurgaon
Manipal Hospitals, Bangalore
Fortis Memorial Research Institute, Gurgaon
HCG Cancer Centre, Bangalore
Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the prostate gland, which is responsible for producing seminal fluid. It is usually slow-growing and often has no symptoms in its early stages, making it difficult to detect.
Age and family history are the main risk factors for prostate cancer. It is the second most common cancer and the sixth leading cause of cancer death among men worldwide. In India, the incidence of prostate cancer is rapidly increasing and it is estimated that the number of cases will double by 2025.
According to the latest data from Globocan, approximately 32,400 new cases of prostate cancer were diagnosed in India in 2020, and around 19,200 men died from the disease. There are many hospitals in India that offer advanced and effective treatments for prostate cancer, including surgical removal of the prostate, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. Some of the top hospitals for prostate cancer treatment in India include Tata Memorial Hospital in Mumbai, Apollo Hospitals in Chennai and Delhi, and Fortis Memorial Research Institute in Gurgaon.
There are four stages of prostate cancer and the options available for prostate cancer treatment in India are:
Active surveillance – When cancer is in early stage and has not grown then it is closely monitored and regular PSA blood levels and biopsies are done to check the growth of cancer.
Surgery –In this procedure, prostate gland and the surrounding tissues and lymph nodes are removed. It can be done either by robot-assisted surgery or by making an incision in the abdomen.
Radiation Therapy – The cancer cells are killed either through external beam radiation in which energy beams are used or through brachytherapy in which radioactive seeds are placed in the prostate tissue.
Hormone Therapy – This treatment is used to stop the testosterone from growing as it helps cancer cells to multiply.
Chemotherapy – It is used to kill or stop cancer cells from growing. Chemotherapy is used when cancer is in advanced stage or when it has spread to other parts of the body.
Biological Therapy – In this treatment, some of the immune cells of the patient are taken and given boost and injected back in the body to fight against prostate cancer.
Cryosurgery – During cryosurgery, small needles are inserted in the prostate and cold gas is inserted through these needles so that the surrounding tissue gets frozen. Again, a second gas is inserted through the needles to reheat the tissue. This cycle of freezing and heating kills the cancer cells.
3. Lung Cancer treatment in India
Lung Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Max Hospital
Max Super Speciality Hospital
2. Fortis Institute
Fortis Memorial Research Institute
3. BGS HOSPITALS
BGS GLENEAGLES GLOBAL HOSPITALS
4. Tata Memorial Hospital
Tata Memorial Hospital
5. Fortis Hospital
Lung Cancer is a type of cancer which starts in the lungs. There are two types of lung cancer:
Non-small Cell Lung Cancer – It is the most common type of lung cancer, also known as Adenocarcinoma. It usually starts in the outer parts of the lungs. This cancer type can also start in the cells that line the passages of the respiratory tract known as Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Further, it also includes other types like Large Cell Carcinoma, Sarcoma, and Sarcomatoid Carcinoma.
Small Cell Lung Cancer –This type starts in the cells that line the bronchi. It is less common and spreads faster than Non-small cell lung cancer.
Lung Cancer in India is the second most common cancer in men and the fifth most common cancer in both men and women together. According to Globocan, approximately 68000 new cases were reported, and 64000 deaths were caused due to this cancer in 2018.
The lung cancer treatment in India includes options like:
Surgery – It’s the best way to treat Non-small cell lung cancer. Depending on how the cancer has spread, the surgeons may either remove a small section, a large section, the entire lobe of one lung or the entire lung if the cancer has spread in the whole lung.
Chemotherapy – It is used to shrink tumors or kill any cancer cells left after the surgery. Also, it can be used as palliation to relieve pain and other symptoms in advanced stage of lung cancer.
Radiation Therapy – High energy X-rays are used to destroy cancer cells or to relieve pain and symptoms. This treatment can be used for both Small cell lung cancer and Non-small cell lung cancer.
Targeted Therapy – It is a new treatment approach that works by targeting specific cancer cells either by killing or preventing them from growing.
Immunotherapy – This treatment approach uses immune system to fight against cancer. It interferes and stops the cancer cells from producing proteins that blinds the immune system cells. It is advised for advanced stage of lung cancer.
Radiofrequency Ablation – In this treatment, doctor inserts a thin needle through the skin till it touches the tumor. Then, an electric current is passed through the electrode to heat and kill the cancer cells.
4. Breast Cancer treatment in India
Breast Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
2. Apollo Hospital
Apollo Specialty Cancer Hospital
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
3. Fortis Hospital
4. American Oncology Institute
American Oncology Institute
5. Medanta - The Medicity
Medanta - The Medicity
Breast cancer develops in the cells of the breasts, either in the glands that produce milk or the pathways that carry milk to the nipple. It can affect both men and women, and risk factors include age, gender, heredity, hormonal imbalances, and lifestyle factors.
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Indian women, accounting for 27% of all cancers in women. Every 4 minutes, a woman in India is diagnosed with breast cancer, and every 8 minutes, a woman dies from it. It's estimated that 1 in 28 Indian women will develop breast cancer during their lifetime.
According to the Union health ministry, breast cancer is the number one cancer among Indian females, with a rate as high as 25.8 per 100,000 women and a mortality rate of 12.7 per 100,000 women.
Breast cancer treatment in India includes various options, such as:
Surgery: Lumpectomy or breast-conserving surgery is performed to remove the tumor and surrounding tissues, or a mastectomy is performed to remove the entire breast. There are different types of both Lumpectomies and Mastectomies.
Radiation Therapy: High-energy waves are used to kill cancer cells. If breast-conserving surgery is performed, radiation therapy is mandatory. Radiation therapy can be given through external beam radiation or brachytherapy.
Chemotherapy: Two types of chemotherapy are given to kill the cancer cells. Adjuvant chemotherapy is used if there is a high risk of cancer returning or spreading, and neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used to shrink the tumor before surgery.
Hormone Therapy: This is the only option for patients who cannot undergo surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Hormone-blocking therapy is used to prevent estrogen and progesterone from helping cancer cells grow.
Targeted Therapy: This therapy can destroy specific breast cancer cells that have high levels of a protein called HER2, which aids in the growth of cancer cells.
5. Colon Cancer treatment in india
Colon Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Apollo Cancer Centre
Apollo Cancer Centre
2. Tata Memorial Hospital
Tata Memorial Hospital
4. Max Hospital
Max Super Speciality Hospital
5. Fortis Hospital
Colon cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the large intestine (colon) when polyps, which are small clumps of cells, form in the colon. Over time, these polyps can become cancerous. Colorectal cancer is sometimes used to refer to colon cancer because colon and rectal cancer may occur together, and colorectal cancer originates in the rectum.
In India, colon cancer is the third most common cancer in women and the fourth most common cancer in men. According to the Globocan 2018 report, there were approximately 28,000 new cases and 20,000 deaths due to colon cancer in 2018.
The following options are available for colon cancer treatment in India:
Surgery: There are different surgical options depending on the cancer's stage.
Colonoscopy: Small cancer tumours or early-stage cancer located in a polyp are removed through colonoscopy.
Endoscopic mucosal resection: Larger polyps are removed along with a small amount of the inner lining of the colon.
Laparoscopic Surgery: If polyps cannot be removed during colonoscopy, laparoscopic surgery is performed through small incisions made in the abdominal wall.
Partial Colectomy: The surgeon removes the part of the colon containing cancerous tissues along with a margin of normal tissue on either side of the cancer. The doctor will reconnect the healthy portions of the colon or rectum in some cases.
Colostomy: If it's not possible to reconnect the healthy portions of the colon and rectum, colostomy is performed, creating an opening in the wall of the abdomen from the bowel to eliminate stool into a bag.
Lymph node removal: Nearby lymph nodes are removed during surgery.
Chemotherapy: Drugs are used to destroy cancer cells, and it's usually given after surgery, but in some cases, it can be given before surgery to shrink tumours. It can also be used to relieve colon cancer symptoms.
Radiation Therapy: Powerful energy waves are used to kill cancer cells, shrink tumours, or relieve colon and rectum cancer symptoms. It is sometimes used in combination with chemotherapy.
Targeted Therapy: Drugs and other substances are used to identify and attack specific cancer cells. It is sometimes given along with chemotherapy, and only advanced-stage cancer cases are given this treatment.
Immunotherapy: For those who have advanced colon cancer or whose cancer is still growing despite chemotherapy, this treatment uses the person's immune system to attack cancer cells.
6. Pancreatic Cancer treatment in India
Pancreatic Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Dharamshila Hospital
Dharamshila Narayana Super speciality Hospital
2. Fortis Hospital
3. American Oncology Institute
4. Kokilaben Institute
Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital & Medical Research Institute
Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute and Research Centre
Pancreatic cancer originates in the pancreas, an organ located behind the stomach and spine that produces pancreatic juices for digestion and hormones and insulin for regulating blood sugar levels. This type of cancer can affect either the endocrine or exocrine glands of the pancreas and may spread to nearby organs such as the liver, abdominal wall, lungs, bones, or lymph nodes.
In India, the incidence rate of pancreatic cancer is lower than in the West. The National Cancer Registry Programme estimated that around 8440 new cases of pancreatic cancer would be reported in men and 6090 in women by 2020.
Treatment options for pancreatic cancer in India include:
Surgery - Two types of surgeries are performed to treat pancreatic cancer:
Curative Surgery: If the cancer is in its early stages and has not spread, surgery is performed to remove the tumor by removing part or all of the pancreas.
Palliative Surgery: If the cancer has spread and cannot be removed, multiple operations may be performed to relieve symptoms of the disease.
Radiation Therapy – Radiation is directed at specific points in the body through a machine that emits high-energy electromagnetic waves. This process is used to stop the tumor from growing or to shrink it. Radiation therapy is often combined with chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy – Drugs are administered orally, intravenously, or through injection into muscle to kill cancer cells and prevent them from growing. Chemotherapy can be used in combination with radiation therapy (chemoradiation) or targeted therapy.
Targeted Therapy – This type of treatment uses drugs to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells. It is not commonly used and is still under clinical trials.
Immunotherapy – This treatment is also under clinical trials, but may be used for a small percentage of patients with certain genetic mutations. The patient's immune system is used to fight against the disease.
7. Liver Cancer treatment in India
Liver Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Tata Memorial hospital
Tata Memorial hospital
2. Max Hospital
Max Super Speciality Hospital
3. Fortis Hospitals
Fortis Healthcare Hospitals
4. Apollo hospital
5. Artemis Hospital
Liver cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the liver. There are several types of liver cancer, with hepatocellular carcinoma being the most common type. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoblastoma are less common types. In addition, liver cancer that has spread to the liver from other organs is more common than cancer that originates in the liver cells.
In India, liver cancer is the 12th most common cancer. According to the Globocan 2018 report, there were approximately 27,700 new cases of liver cancer reported, and 25,700 deaths were caused due to liver cancer in 2018.
There are various options available for the treatment of liver cancer in India, including:
Surgery - Two types of surgery can be performed to treat liver cancer:
a) Surgery to remove the tumour: The surgeon will remove a portion of the liver where cancer tissues are present and a small portion of healthy tissues surrounding it so that chances of cancer returning can be avoided.
b) Liver transplant surgery: In this treatment, the diseased liver affected by cancer is removed and replaced with a healthy liver from a donor. This option is only for a small percentage of people with early-stage liver cancer.
Cryoablation - This process uses extreme cold to kill cancer cells by placing an instrument, Cryoprobe containing liquid nitrogen directly onto the liver tumour.
Radiofrequency Ablation - A needle is placed through the skin in the tumour, and a high-frequency electrical current is passed through the needle to heat and destroy the cancer cells. This option is used in cases when surgery is not an option.
Percutaneous Ethanol Injection - In this case, pure alcohol is injected directly into the liver to destroy the cancer cells. This option is rarely used.
Chemotherapy - Chemoembolization is a type of chemotherapy treatment in which anti-cancer drugs are supplied directly into the liver. This process blocks the hepatic artery which is responsible for supplying blood to cancer tissues. Blocking the blood supply will destroy the cancer cells.
Radiation Therapy - In this treatment, a machine directs energy beams at a specific point on the patient’s body, which destroys or shrinks the tumours. For advanced-stage liver cancer, it might help in controlling the symptoms. This treatment also includes a technique called Stereotactic Radiosurgery that simultaneously focuses many beams of radiation at one point in the body.
Targeted Drug Therapy - This process works only for people who have genetic mutations in their cancer cells. During this treatment, specific cells are targeted to stop their growth and to destroy them.
Immunotherapy - This treatment option is designed to boost the body’s natural defences to fight against cancer. Some immunotherapy drugs are used to treat liver cancer, while others are under clinical trials.
8. Brain Cancer treatment in India
Brain Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Tata Memorial hospital
Tata Memorial hospital
3. Indraprastha hospital
Indraprastha Apollo hospital
4. Fortis Malar hospital
Fortis Malar hospital
5. Columbia Asia Hospital
Columbia Asia Hospital
In Brain Cancer, a tumour or growth of abnormal cells occurs in the brain. The cancer cells grow to form a mass or cancer tissue that interferes with the brain functions. It can begin in the brain known as primary brain tumour or can begin in other parts of the body and spread to the brain known as secondary or metastatic brain tumour.
The incidence of brain tumour is rising in India. As per Globocan 2018 report, Brain Cancer is ranked 10th most common cancer. Approximately 28200 new cases and 24000 deaths are reported annually.
The options available for Brain cancer treatment in India are:
Surgery – It is the primary line of treatment in which as much of the tumour is safely removed without impacting the brain functions. This treatment may also relieve some symptoms caused by brain cancer. Also, it may be combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Radiation Therapy – Radiation Therapy kill the cancer cells with high energy http://beams.It allows doctors to increase the dosage and target radiation to the brain tumour, while reducing damage to the healthy brain tissues. There are two ways of giving radiation therapy – internal and external. The most common one is external-beam radiation therapy in which radiation is given through a machine outside the body. The other one is internal radiation therapy or brachytherapy in which radiation is given using implants inside the body.
Chemotherapy – In this treatment, the drugs can be taken orally in the form of a pill or injected into a vein to destroy the brain tumour. This therapy is usually given after the surgery and may be given in combination with radiation therapy if the tumour comes back after initial treatment.
Targeted Therapy – This therapy targets specific genes or abnormalities in the brain tumour cells that contributes to the tumour’s growth and survival. It is often combined with chemotherapy.
9. Stomach Cancer treatment in India
Stomach Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Fortis Hospital
2. Christian Hospital
Christian Medical College and Hospital
3. BLK Hospital
4. Gleneagles Hospital
Gleneagles Global Hospital
5. Mazumdar Shaw Centre
Mazumdar Shaw Cancer Centre
Stomach cancer is also known as Gastric cancer. The cancer cells form in the mucus-producing cells which are present in the inner lining of the stomach which can also spread to nearby lymph nodes and other parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, bones and a woman’s ovaries.
Majority of stomach cancer are a type called Adenocarcinoma. Other types are Lymphoma, Gastric Sarcoma and Neuroendocrine tumours.
Stomach cancer is rare as compared to other types of cancer. Also, it is one of the dangerous types of cancer because it is difficult to diagnose stomach cancer as most people don’t show symptoms in the early stages. Thus, making it more difficult to treat.
Stomach Cancer is claimed to be the 4th most common cancer in India and 3rd most common cancer in men. According to Globocan 2018, around 57400 new cases were registered and 51500 deaths were caused due to this cancer.
The options available for stomach cancer treatment in India are:
Surgery – The surgery is performed to remove the entire stomach cancer, nearby lymph nodes, and a margin of a nearby healthy tissue to reduce the chances of cancer returning as much as possible. There are various types of surgical procedures used such as –
Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: Very small cancer tissues in the lining of the stomach are removed using Endoscopy.
Subtotal Gastrectomy: The surgeon removes only the portion affected by cancer.
Total Gastrectomy: Here the surgeon removes the entire stomach and the surrounding tissues.
Lymph nodes removal: Nearby lymph nodes are removed to prevent the chances of cancer returning.
Relieve signs and symptoms: In advanced stage, surgery is performed to relieve signs and symptoms of the cancer.
Radiation Therapy –This therapy uses high energy radiation to destroy the cancer cells and also keep them from growing. If it’s given before surgery to shrink the tumours, it is known as Neoadjuvant Radiation. In case it is used after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells, then it is known as Adjuvant Radiation.
Chemotherapy – It is a drug treatment which uses chemicals to kill cancer cells thatmay have spread beyond the stomach. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy is given before surgery to shrink the tumours so that it becomes easy for the surgeon to remove the tumours. Adjuvant Chemotherapy is given post-surgery to kill any cancer cells that may have remained.
Targeted Therapy – This treatment method identifies specific abnormalities in the cancer cells and attack them without harming the normal cells.
10. Oral Cancer treatment in India
Oral Cancer Treatment Hospital India:
1. Fortis Hospital
3. BLK Hospital
Oral cancer is also known as Mouth cancer. It develops in the tissues of the mouth (oral cavity) or throat. It can occur on the lips, gums, tongue, inner lining of the cheeks, roof of the mouth, floor of the tongue, in the tonsils and in the salivary glands.
The risk factors for oral cancer include smoking, chewing tobacco, consumption of alcohol, family history, excessive sun exposure and Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
India accounts for one third of oral cancer cases in the world. Here, 20 per 100000 populations are affected by this cancer which is roughly 30% of all cancers. According to Globocan 2018 report, approximately 120000 new cases were reported and 73000 died because of oral cancer in 2018.
The treatment options available for oral cancer in India are:
Surgery – The surgeon will remover the tumour and the cancerous lymph nodes along with tissues around the mouth and neck. Also, surgery may be done to reconstruct the mouth to help regain the ability to talk and eat.
Radiation Therapy – High energy X-rays and proton beams are used to destroy cancer cells and stop them from reproducing. For early stage oral cancer, radiation therapy is given after surgery and for advanced stage, radiation therapy in combination with chemotherapy is given.
Chemotherapy – In this treatment, drugs are given to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may increase the effectiveness of radiation therapy, so they are given in combination especially if there is a chance of cancer returning.
Targeted Therapy – It treats oral cancer by targeting specific cancer cells that are responsible for fuelling the growth. It can be effective in both early and advanced stages.
Immunotherapy – This treatment uses the patient’s immune system to fight against cancer by giving drugs that strengthen the immune system. It’s usually advised in advanced stages of cancer.
11. Cervical Cancer
Cervical cancer occurs in the cervix which is the narrow opening of the uterus that connects to the vagina. Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection is the main cause of cervical cancer.
Around 80 to 90 % cervical cancers are Squamous cell cancers. The second most common type is Adenocarcinoma, accounting for remaining 10 to 20 %. Women having age above 30 years have more risk of developing cervical cancer.But this cancer is highly preventable due to availability of screening tests and vaccine to prevent HPV infections.
Cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer in India according to Globocan 2018 reports. In India alone, it accounts for one-fourth of global cervical cancer cases. More than 85 % of cervical cancer patients are from the age group of 40 years and above. The maximum number of cases amounting to 27.37 % of all cancer cases were reported in age group of 50-59 years.
The options available for cervical cancer treatment in India are:
Surgery – Early-stage cervical cancer are commonly treated with surgery in case the tumour has not spread beyond the cervix. There are some types of surgical procedures used such as:
Conization: This procedure is also called as cone biopsy because it is used to remove cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix that can be only seen with a microscope which is known as microinvasive cancer. Conization is performed with a knife, thin heated wire loop or laser.
Simple Hysterectomy: Surgery is performed to remove the tumour along with the cervix and the uterus. This option is used for mostly early-stage cancer.
Radical Hysterectomy: In this procedure, the cancerous tumour along with the cervix, uterus, part of the vagina is removed. Also, the ovaries, fallopian tubes or nearby lymph nodes may be removed.
Radiation Therapy - In this therapy, high energy x-rays and protons are aimed at the body to destroy cancer cells. It may be given before the surgery to shrink the tumours. Radiation Therapy is often combined with chemotherapy to control the cancer in the pelvis with the objective of curing the cancer without performing surgery.
Chemotherapy - It uses medications to treat cervical cancer. It kills or slows down the growth of the cancer cells. Doctors often combine low doses of chemotherapy with the radiation therapy, called Chemoradiation to increase the effectiveness of the radiation. High doses of chemotherapy are given to control the advanced stage of cervical cancer.
Targeted Therapy - This treatment targets the specific genes and tissues that help the cancer cells to grow and survive. It blocks the growth and stops them from spreading without harming the healthy cells. When cervical cancer reoccurs then, targeted therapy is given in combination with chemotherapy.
Immunotherapy - It is also called as Biologic Therapy. It is designed to boost the body’s immune system to fight the cancer cells. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve the natural defences of the body.
12. Gallbladder Cancer
Gallbladder Cancer occurs when the cancer cells are formed in the gallbladder. The types of gallbladder cancer include adenosquamous carcinomas, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinosarcomas but the most common one is adenocarcinoma. It is difficult to diagnose gallbladder cancer as it often shows no signs or symptoms.
Gallbladder cancer incidence is higher in the Indian population as compared globally.The highest number of cases are reported in northern India. According to Globocan, around 26,000 new cases and 19,680 deaths were reported in 2018. Gallbladder cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in women. The incidence of gallbladder cancer in females in northern India is 9/1,00,000 per year which is high in comparison to 1/1,00,000 per year in western and southern India which is very low.
The treatment options for gallbladder cancer includes:
Surgery – After Gallbladder cancer is diagnosed, the surgeon will conduct tests to check whether patient is fit enough for the surgery. Two types of surgery are there that can be performed to remove the gallbladder.
Cholecystectomy: The early stage gallbladder cancer which is confined to the gallbladder is treated by removing the gallbladder. To treat gallbladder cancer, cholecystectomy is a common treatment option.
Radical Gallbladder Resection: The advanced stage gallbladder cancer which has extended beyond the gallbladder and into the liver and other organs of the body is treated by removing the gallbladder, liver tissues, pancreas, the common bile duct, blood vessels, ligaments between liver and intestine and the nearby lymph nodes.
Palliative Surgery: Sometimes this type of surgery may be performed to relieve the symptoms caused by the gallbladder cancer in case the tumour cannot be completely removed. The palliative surgery may relieve the blockage of the bile ducts or intestines or may stop bleeding.
Radiation Therapy – External Radiation Therapy is used for the treatment of gallbladder cancer in which radiation is given externally through a machine aimed at the body. This therapy is used to kill the cancer cells or stop them from growing. Sometimes, the doctor may give radiation therapy to relieve the symptoms like removing the blockage in the bile duct or stopping the cancer from spread to other parts of the body. This process is known as Palliative Radiotherapy.
Chemotherapy –It is a Systemic Therapy in which drugs enter the bloodstream to kill the cancer cells throughout the body and hinder their ability to grow and divide. Usually, it is used as a palliative care treatment for gallbladder cancer after surgery. It can also be given before surgery as neoadjuvant therapy to shrink the tumours so that it becomes easy to remove through operation.
Palliative Therapy – This treatment is used to control or reduce the symptoms caused by advanced gallbladder cancer. It includes several therapies such as Biliary Stent or Biliary Catheter, Biliary Bypass and alcohol injection.
13. Skin Cancer
Skin Cancer is one of the most common of all human cancers worldwide. It occurs when skin cells grow abnormally. It most often affects the skin that is exposed to the sun, but it can also affect the other areas of the skin that is not exposed to the sun.
Basal cell carcinoma, Squamous cell carcinoma and Melanoma are the three main types of Skin Cancer.
Skin cancer is very common worldwide but it is a less common malignancy in India as it is less than 1% of all the diagnosed cancers over here. Though the absolute number of cases is estimated to be huge because of the larger population base. Also, Basal cell carcinoma is the commonest malignancy all over the world but in India, Squamous cell carcinoma is reported to be the most prevalent type of skin cancer.
In India, according to the Globocan 2018, approximately 3048 new cases and 2053 deaths have been reported due to skin cancer.
The Skin cancer treatment in India includes options such as:
Chemical Peel – A chemical solution is put on the skin to peel off the top layers of the skin. After that, normal skin regrows in a few weeks. This treatment may be used to treat actinic keratosis.
Surgery – Basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma are mostly treated with surgery. More aggressive cancer like Melanoma may require more extensive surgery.
Some of the surgical procedures used to treat the different types of skin cancer are -
Excisional Surgery: This type of treatment may be suitable for any type of skin cancer. The surgeon cut outs the tumour and surrounding healthy tissues.
Mohs Micrographic Surgery: This treatment option is used for larger, recurring or difficult-to-treat skin cancers like Basal and Squamous cell carcinomas. In this procedure, the doctor removes the skin layer by layer, examining each layer under the microscope until no more cancer cells are remaining. It is often used in areas where it’s necessary to conserve as much as skin possible like nose, face, etc.
Curettage and Electrodesiccation: This procedure is also called as Electrosurgery.The doctor cuts out the tumour with a curette which is a sharp circular blade. Then a needle-shaped electrode is used to destroy the cancer cells with the help of electric current.
Cryosurgery: In this treatment, liquid nitrogen is used to freeze and destroy the abnormal tissues after which the tissues falls off naturally.
Laser Surgery: This surgical procedure uses a laser beam to remove the tissues by making bloodless cuts.
Radiation Therapy – Tumours are treated by using X-ray beams. This therapy is employed when the tumours are difficult to remove by surgery. There are two types of radiation therapy used by the doctors: Internal and External Radiation Therapy which is mostly used to treat Basal and Squamous cell carcinoma.
Chemotherapy – This cancer treatment method uses medications to kill the cancer cells. For cancers like Basal, Squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis which is limited to the top layer of the skin, creams or lotions are applied to the skin. For cancers that have spread to other parts of the body, systematic chemotherapy is used for treatment.
Photodynamic Therapy – In this treatment option, a combination of drugs and laser light is used to destroy skin cancer cells. This therapy causes little damage to the healthy tissues.
Immunotherapy – It is also known as Biological Therapy that uses body’s immune system to fight against cancer cells. Squamous cell carcinoma is treated by drugs through injection and Basal cell carcinoma is treated by using cream on the skin that contains the drugs which kills the cancerous cells.
Targeted Therapy – This therapy is used to treat Basal cell carcinoma. It uses drugs to target and attack specific cancer cells.
14. Eye Cancer
Eye cancer is uncommon worldwide. The cancer cells affect the outer parts of the eye such as the eyelid and can also develop in the tissues surrounding the eyeball or spread to other parts of the body like lung or breasts. The cancer that starts in the eyeball is called Intraocular cancer. The different types of eye cancers are – Squamous cell carcinoma, Melanoma, Lymphoma, out of which Melanoma and Lymphoma are the most common intraocular cancer in adults and Retinoblastoma which is common among children.
The incidence of Eye cancer among Indian population is low.But it’s increasing every year. The statistics show that its 0.3-0.4 percent with 70-80% cases seen in adult and 20-30% cases in children. Nearly, 2000 cases of retinoblastoma are reported in children every year in India.
The treatment options available to treat Eye cancer in India are:
Surgery – In surgery, surgeon removes the tumour from the eye and surrounding healthy tissues depending on the size and the spread of the tumour known as Surgical resection. This treatment option is commonly used to treat Intraocular Melanoma.
The different types of surgical procedures performed by the doctors are:
Iridectomy: In this, part of iris is removed.
Iridotrabeculectomy: The outer part of the eyeball and iris is removed.
Iridocyclectomy: Removal of the part of the iris and ciliary body
Endoresection: Removal of the choroidal tumour.
Enucleation: In this procedure, surgery is performed to remove the eye and part of the optic nerve. After Surgery, doctor can fit a prosthetic eye to provide a normal appearance.
Exenteration: This is an extensive surgery in which the whole eyeball and surrounding structures such as eyelid, muscles, nerves, tissues and fat in the eye socket is removed. Later, the patient can opt for prosthetic eye.
Radiation Therapy – It is used commonly for melanoma treatment. It deploys high-energy radio waves to destroy cancer cells. Radiation Therapy is often combined with surgery for improved vision. The two ways in which radiation therapy can be given are:
External Radiation Therapy: In this procedure, gamma rays or protons are directed to the body externally through the machine.
Internal Radiation Therapy: Plaque Therapy is one of the types of Radiation Therapy used in which radioactive seeds are attached to a disk called plaque and placed directly near the tumour on the outside wall of the eye.